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How Hydro power Works:
When flowing water is captured and turned into electricity, it is called hydroelectric power or hydropower. A turbine converts the kinetic energy of falling water into mechanical energy. Then a generator converts the mechanical energy from the turbine into electrical energy.

Parts of a Hydroelectric Plant
Most conventional hydroelectric plants include four major components are- Dam: Raises the water level of the river to create falling water. Also controls the flow of water. The reservoir that is formed is, in effect, stored energy. Turbine: The force of falling water pushing against the turbine's blades causes the turbine to spin. A water turbine is much like a windmill, except the energy is provided by falling water instead of wind. The turbine converts the kinetic energy of falling water into mechanical energy.
Generator: Connected to the turbine by shafts and possibly gears so when the turbine spins it causes the generator to spin also. Converts the mechanical energy from the turbine to electric energy. Generators in hydropower plants work just like the generators in other types of power plants.
Transmission lines: Conduct electricity from the hydropower plant to homes and business.

Types of Hydropower Plants:
The most common type of hydroelectric power plant uses a dam on a river to store water in a reservoir. Water released from the reservoir flows through a turbine, spinning it, which in turn activates a generator to produce electricity. But hydroelectric power doesn't necessarily require a large dam. Some hydroelectric power plants just use a small canal to channel the river water through a turbine.

Impoundment:
An impoundment hydropower plant dams water in a reservoir. The most common type of hydroelectric power plant is an impoundment facility. An impoundment facility, typically a large hydropower system, uses a dam to store river water in a reservoir. Water released from the reservoir flows through a turbine, spinning it, which in turn activates a generator to produce electricity. The water may be released either to meet changing electricity needs or to maintain a constant reservoir level.

Diversion:
A diversion, sometimes called run-of-river, facility channels a portion of a river through a canal or penstock. It may not require the use of a dam

Pumped Storage:
Another type of hydroelectric power plant called a “pumped storage plant” can even store power. The generators then spin the turbines backward, which causes the turbines to pump water from a river or lower reservoir to an upper reservoir, where the power is stored. To use the power, the water is released from the upper reservoir back down into the river or lower reservoir. This spins the turbines forward, activating the generators to produce electricity.
 

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